Monthly Archives: February 2015

FATS

Fats are primarily energy matter which is entered through diet using foods of plant and animal origin. They are the bearers of vitamins A, D, E and K, are also constitutive role because constitute 2% of each cell. Fat with sugar constitute the cheapest source of energy, because 1g fat is burning 9 kcal (twice the amount of protein and carbohydrates).

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Fatty acids can be classified as saturated and unsaturated.

The first type are saturated fats, which are mainly found in meat, eggs, dairy products, including butter, cheese … much better and healthier type of diet are unsaturated fats. These are healthy fats and are divided into two groups: monounsaturated and polyunsaturated.

Monounsaturated fats are found in olive oil, walnuts, canola oil …

Polyunsaturated fats are found in some vegetable oils and fish oil. These are:

a) Omega 6 linoleic acid. The role of the LOOK of the proper growth of the organism, has them in sunflower, corn and sesame oil.

b) Omega 3 linoleic acid. The role is reflected in the structure and function of cell membranes. There is oil from flax seeds, pumpkin seeds, and fish oil: salmon, tuna, sardines, herring, mackerel. It can not be created in the body, but must be entered by food. A derivative of omega-3 plays an important role in brain development and function of vision.
Omega 3 fats are especially important because it raises levels of good HDL cholesterol and reduce levels of bad LDL, and are also important for brain development. Act favorably on the health of the heart and blood vessels, and intake of fish two to four times a week and regular use of olive oil contribute to reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

It is recommended that the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fats in the diet is 10: 30%

Fat containing phosphorus called phospholipids. They are added to foods as an additive, usually in margarine, chocolate, frozen sweets. Since cholesterol is the most important that are more than 90% located in the membrane of cells and is required for synthesis of vitamin D in the skin, and then to the synthesis of certain hormones (estrogen and testosterone). Drugs such as steroids anabolics belong to the group of sterols (used in sports to increase muscle mass and strength but they are very dangerous because it can damage the liver).

The overall fat intake should cover less than 30% of daily energy needs. The origin should be primarily from grains, fruits and vegetables, which are rich in fiber and micronutrients. A person with abnormal lipid whose cholesterol levels remain increased must apply the reduction of daily fat intake to only 20% and 7% saturated.

MASTI – dobre i loše

Masti su prvenstveno energetske materije koje se unose putem ishrane korišcenjem namirnica biljnog i životinjskog porekla. One su nosioci vitamina A,D,E i K, takođe imaju gradivnu ulogu, jer čine 2% svake ćelije. Masti uz šećere čine najjeftiniji izvor energije, jer 1 gr masti sagoreva 9 kcal ( dvostruko više od  belančevina i ugljenih hidrata ).

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Masne kiseline se mogu klasifikovati na zasićene i nezasićene.

Prvi tip su zasićene masti, koje se većinom nalaze u mesu, jajima, mlečnim proizvodima, uključujući puter, sir…Mnogo bolji i zdraviji tip za ishranu su nezasićene masti. To su zdrave masti i podeljene su u dve grupe: mononezasićene i polinezasićene.

Mononezasićene masti se nalaze u maslinovom ulju, orasima, ulju uljane repice…

Polinezasićene masti se nalaze u nekim biljnim uljima i ribljem ulju. To su:
a) Omega 6 linolna kiselina. Uloga im se ogleda u pravilnom rastu organizma. Ima ih u suncokretovom, kukuruznom i susamovom ulju.
b) Omega 3 linolna kiselina. Uloga im se ogleda u strukturi i funkciji ćeliske membrane. Ima ih u ulju iz lanenog semena, iz semena bundeve, kao i ribljem ulju: lososa, tune, sardele, haringe, skuše. Ne može se stvarati u organizmu, već se mora uneti hranom. Derivat omega 3 igra važnu ulogu u razvoju mozga i funkciji vida.
Omega 3 masti su posebno važne jer podižu nivo dobrog HDL holesterola i smanjuju nivo loseg LDL, a takođe su vazne i za razvoj mozga. Deluju povoljno na zdravlje srca i krvnih sudova, pa unos ribe dva do četiri puta nedeljno i redovna upotreba maslinovog ulja doprinose smanjenju rizika od kardiovaskularnih bolesti.

Preporučuje se da odnos zasićenih i nezasićenih masti u ishrani bude 10: 30%

Masnoće koje sadrže fosfor zovu se fosfolipidi. Oni se dodaju u hranu kao aditiv, najčesće u margarin, čokoladu, zamrznute slatkiše. Od sterola je najvažniji holesterol koji se preko 90% nalazi u membrani ćelije i potreban je za sintezu vitamina D u koži, zatim za sintezu nekih hormona (testosterona i estrogena). Lekovi kao što su steroidi anabolici, pripadaju grupi sterola (koriste se u sportu za povećanje mišićne mase i snage, ali su jako opasni jer oštećuju jetru).

Opšti unos masnoća treba da pokrije manje od 30 % dnevnih energetskih potreba. Poreklo treba da bude prvenstveno iz žitarica, povrća i voća, koja su bogata vlaknima i mikronutritijentima. Osoba sa poremećajem masnoća čiji je holesterol u krvi povećan mora da primeni smanjivanje dnevnog unosa nezasićenih masnoća na svega 20% i zasićenih masnoća na 7%.

PROBLEM WITH LOWER BACK

What makes the lower back:

Five lumbar vertebrae that connect our pelvis to the top of the spine.The six discus that protect our vertebra and absorb all incoming attacks. The nerves and spinal cord that conduct impulses to our muscles from the brain and their role is most similar to the “current cables “. Small joints that we provide to all funcion properly and maintain both stability and mobility. Ligaments and muscles without which the function of the spine is unthinkable, because they give us strength and also provide stability.

The most common activities what give as a pain:

Each working or sporting activity or activities of daily living, if performed incorrectly or sudden or long it lasts, it can cause pain in the lumbar region of the back. The pain is most often associated with the following activities:

improper lifting of any weight, where the hull flexes and rotates the sudden movement of rotation, bending or rotation and stretching hull prolonged sitting lengthy car ride long walking prolonged standing bad position during sleep violations of bone and muscular lumbar region – trauma (usually traffic accidents, injuries during sports activities …)

Muscle weakness is due to inactivity. Muscle imbalance is one of the most important causes of pain. Muscle strength of individual muscles and muscle groups should be balanced, harmonious and balanced.

With kineziteraphy (medical exercise) is begun when fully relieve the pain. Our goal is to take strong musculature of the burden of the lumbar spine. It is important to note that there is no activity of daily life that strengthens lumbo-sacral spine extensors. Also, there is not a sporting activity that strengthens the muscles of this region. It is the most common cause of these problems.

Exercises for preventing pain and strengthen the lumbar your muscles:

Exercises that you can do to strengthen the lower back can work at home in nature or fitness center. The simplest and most are static contraction exercise (endurance) running on the ground:

1. Alternating vertical rise from the ground opposite arm and leg endurance of 10-15 seconds then changes, exercise is performed without a break in the 3 series alternately.

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2. Gently lift even lower and upper extremities at the same time and returns to the starting position, the exercise is performed in 4 sets of 10-15 reps

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3. Position Plank, endurance in a given position, the focus is on the abdominal wall that needs to be constantly in contraction, the exercise is performed in three series with the endurance of 15-30 seconds

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When enough to strengthen the muscles may be the ancestors of the execution of more complex and demanding exercises:

1. Extension backs, 3-4 sets of 10-15 reps

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2. Good morning exercise, initially running without load and later with load, 3-4 sets of 10-12 reps

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3. Dead lift, the exercise is performed with a light load in the beginning, with a focus on the right position of the back in every position, 4 sets of 8-12 reps

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Exercises are performed 4-6 times per week at first. Later, when there was a considerable reinforcement lumbar necessary to maintain muscle tone with working out 2-3 times a week.

LUMBALNI SINDROM I BOL U DONJEM DELU LEĐA

Sve češće nailazimo na problem, a možda ga i sami imate,  da kako kako stariji tako i mladi imaju problem sa lumbalnim delom leđa. Nepravilno sedenje (sedenje na repu a ne na sedalnim kostima), dugo sedenje, prekomerna težina, nepravilno držanje, slabi CORE mišići… sve su to uzroci ovog problema. U ovom tekstu ćemo malo pojasniti anatomsku strukturu kičmenog stuba i mišića, uzroke, posledice i korektivne vežbe za sprečavanje i korekcije ovog sindroma.

ŠTA ČINI DONJI DEO LEĐA:

  • Pet lumbalnih pršljenova koji povezuju našu karlicu sa gornjim delom kičme.
  • Šest diskusa koji štite naše pršljenove i apsorbuju sve dolazeće udare.
  • Nervi i kičmena moždina koji provode impulse u naše mišiće iz mozga i njihova uloga je najsličnija sa “strujnim kablovima”.
  • Mali zglobovi koji nam obezbeđuju da sve funkiconiše kako treba, takođe održavaju ujedno stabilnost i pokretljivost.
  • Ligamenti i mišići bez kojih je funkcija naše kičme nezamisliva, jer nam daju snagu i obezbeđuju stabilnost.

NAJČEŠĆE AKTIVNOSTI KOJE UZROKUJU NASTANAK BOLA

Svaka radna ili sportska aktivnost ili aktivnost svakodnevnog života, ukoliko se nepravilno ili naglo izvede ili vremenski dugo traje, može da prouzrokuje bol u lumbalnom delu leđa. Bol se najčešće vezuje za sledeće aktivnosti:

  • nepravilno dizanje tereta ma koje težine, gde se trup savija i rotira
  • nagli pokret rotacije, savijanja ili rotacije i istezanja trupa
  • dugotrajno sedenje
  • dugotrajna vožnja automobilom
  • dugotrajno hodanje
  • dugotrajno stajanje
  • loš položaj u toku spavanja
  • povrede koštano-mišićnog sistema lumbalne regije – traume ( najčešće saobraćajni udesi, povrede u toku sportskih aktivnosti…)

Mišićna slabost je posledica inaktivnosti. Mišićni disbalans je jedan od bitnijih uzroka bolova. Snaga pojedinačnih mišića i mišićnih grupa trebalo bi da bude izbalansirana, harmonična i ujednačena.

Sa kineziterapijom (medicinskim vežbanjem) se započinje kada se potpuno otkloni bol. Cilj nam je da jaka muskulatura preuzme deo tereta lumbalne kičme. Bitno je napomenuti da ne postoji aktivnost svakodnevnog života koja jača lumbo-sakralne ekstenzore kičme. Isto tako, ne postoji ni sportska aktivnost koja jača mišiće ove regije. To je i najčešći razlog ovih tegoba.

VEŽBE ZA PREVENCIJU BOLA I JAČANJE LUMBALNIH MIŠIĆA:

Vežbe koje možete raditi za jačanje donjih leđa se mogu raditi kod kuće u prirodi ili fitnes centru. Najjednostavnije i najbitnije su vežbe statičkih kontrakcija ( izdržaja ) koje se izvode na tlu:

  1. Naizmenično odizanje od tla suprotne ruke i noge, izdržaj od 10-15 sekundi zatim promena, vežba se izvodi bez pauze u 3 serije naizmenično.

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  1. Lagano odizanje donjih i gornjih ekstremiteta u isto vreme i vraćanje u početni položaj, vežba se izvodi u 4 serije od 10-15 ponavljanja

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  1. Pozicija Plank, izdržaj u zadatom položaju, fokus je na trbušnom zidu koji mora da bude stalno u kontrakciji, vežba se izvodi u 3 serije sa izdržajima od 15-30 sekundi

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Kada se dovoljno ojačaju mišići može se preći na izvođenje složenijih i zahtevnijih vežbi:

  1. Ekstenzija leđa, 3-4 serije od 10-15 ponavljanja

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  1. Good morning vežba, u početku se izvodi bez opterećenja a kasnije sa opterećenjem, 3-4 serije od 10-12 ponavljanja

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  1. Mrtvo dizanje ili dead lift, vežba se izvodi sa laganim opterećenjem u početku, sa fokusom na prav položaj leđa u svakoj poziciji, 4 serije od 8-12 ponavljanja

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Vežbe se izvode 4-6 puta nedeljno u početku. Kasnije kada dođe do znatnog ojačanja lumbalnog dela potrebno je održavati tonus mišića sa vežbanjem 2-3 puta nedeljno.

Ovo su neke osnovne vežbe koje trebate baš po ovom redosledu da upražnjavate. U koliko imate ozbiljno oštećenje ili deformitet, period oporavka i rehabilitacije je znatno veći i vežbe se izvode znatno duže uz veći broj ponavljanja, a aktivacija mišića statičkim kontrakcijama je učestalija. 

EMPTY CALORIES

Why obese people are never enough full after big meals? Why feel hungry an hour after a heavy meal? And they need to be changed to uncontrollable hunger ceased?

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For starters should be distinguished nutritional and energy (calories) worth of food. Some foods can be high-caloric, given at the time of high energy level (sweets), but the body can not get away from them to any building blocks, and practically remain hungry. Addition to that, the more (junk food) intake, the body is more desirous of nutrients. What should a person eat eggs, meat and fish because he needed proteins (instead of salami, pate and sausages), vegetables and fruits, because its essential vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. There are also the carbohydrate and fat content, but not any.

Where they are located. In the past often use the term  “empty calories” food boxes rich in carbohydrates and low in protein, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and fiber. There are thoughts: on sweets and other foods that contain sugar (chocolate, sweets, biscuits industrial …), refined grains like white bread, white rice (rich in starch), saturated fat, fast food (hot dogs, hamburgers, fried potatoes …), alcoholic beverages. Especially rich in calories is fried foods (French fries, fried chicken and chips), and very low in nutrients. Large portions, for example, fried potatoes retain 570 calories, which is a third of the daily needs calories for women, and a quarter of the daily requirement for men.

How to resist them. Try to hundreds of smaller fry, and the more you cook the food. Baked potatoes can replace fries and roasted chicken. Avoid carbonated beverages. In addition to large amounts of sugar, quinine in many drinks can reduce the number of platelets in the blood and that adversely affects the liver.Classic bread to replace white bread with whole black beans. Bread with whole grains contain fiber, which facilitates digestion and antioxidants. Classic snacks replace for fruity snack or some integral biscuits that contain grains. Sweets should be replaced by fruit, dry fruit, nuts.

PRAZNE KALORIJE

Zasto gojazni ljudi nikad nisu dovoljno siti? Zbog cega osete glad samo sat vremena nakon obilnog obroka? I sta je potrebno promeniti da bi nekontrolisana glad prestala?

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Za pocetak treba razlikovati nutritivne i energetske ( kaloriske ) vrednosti hrane. Neke namirnice mogu biti visokokaloriske , davati u trenutku visok nivo energije ( slatkisi ) , ali telo ne moze iz njih da izvuce nikakve gradivne elemente, te prakticno ostane gladan. Da paradoks bude veci, sto vise ( dzank hrane ) unosite, to je organizam zeljniji hranljivih sastojaka. Ono sto bi covek trebalo da jede su jaja, meso i riba jer su mu potrebni proteini ( umesto salama, pasteta i virsli ), povrce i voce jer su mu neophodni vitamini, minerali i antioksidansi. Tu su i ugljeni hidrati i masti ,ali ne bilo koji.

Gde se nalaze. U poslednje vreme cesto se koristi termin “prazne kalorije” za namernice bogate ugljenim hidratima, a siromasne belancevinama, vitaminima, mineralima, amino kiselinama ili vlaknima. Tu se misli: na slatkise i druge namirnice koje sadrze secer ( cokolade, bombone, industrijski keks … ), rafinirane zitarice poput belog hleba belog pirinca ( bogate su skrobom ) , zasicene masnoce, brza hrana ( hot dog, hamburgeri, przeni krompirici… ) ,alkoholna pica. Posebno bogata kalorijama je przena hrana ( pomfrit, przena piletina ili cips ) , a vrlo siromasna nutritijentima. Velika porcija na primer przenih krompira zadrzi 570 kalorija,  sto predstavlja trecinu dnevnih kaloriskih potreba za zene, a cetvrtinu dnevnih potreba za muskarce.

Kako im se odupreti. Pokusajte da sto manje przite, a sto vise kuvate hranu. Peceni krompir moze zameniti pomfrit, kao i pecena piletina. Izbegavajte gazirane napitke. Osim velike kolicine secera, kinin u mnogim napitcima moze da smanji broj trombocita u krvi i da negativno utice na jetru, cak i da dodvede do ciroze.Klasicni beli hleb zamenite crnim sa celim zrnima. Hleb sa celim zrnima sadrze vlakna koja olaksavaju varenje i antioksidanse. Klasicne grickalice za uzinu zamenite vocnim uzinama ili nekim integralnim keksom koji sadrzi u sebi zitarice. Slatkise treba zameniti vocem , suvim vocem, orasastim plodovima.

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