Monthly Archives: June 2015

UTICAJ ALKOHOLA NA ORGANIZAM I KILOGRAME

Mislim da postoji puno zabluda oko toga kako alkohol utiče na naš organizam na naše kilograme na našu gojaznost. Da li je tačno ili je zabluda da alkohol goji, probaćemo da razjasnimo kroz sledeći tekst.

Opsta formula za alkohol je R-OH. Od svih alkohola, u alkoholnim pićima se nalazi etilni alkohol ili etanol. Dobija se procesom fermentacije (alkoholno vrenje) iz plodova voća i žitarica koje sadrže šećer.

Alcohol

Alkohol kao sam alkohol ne može da se skladišti u mast, tj kalorije iz alkohola ne mogu da se pretvore u masne naslage. Ali alkohol znatno utiče na naš metabolizam a samim tim i indirektno na trošenje kalorija i brzinu našeg metabolizma. On smanjuje lučenje hormona TESTOSTERONA i hormona RASTA koji znatno utiču na brzinu metabolizma i na rast mišićnog tkiva. Na primer, studija koju je sproveo TNO institut za ishranu i prehranu, imao je 10 ispitanika koji piju 30-40 grama alkohola dnevno (2-3 piva, ili 10-15 grama vina). Posle 3 nedelje, njihov nivo testosterona je opao za oko 7%. Univerzitet u Helsinkiju je sproveo sličnu studiju, oni su davali ispitanicima 1,5 g etanola po kg telesne težine kod 10 zdravih muškaraca starosti 20-26 godina, i otkrili da je njihov nivo testosterona opao za 23 % u proseku između 10. i 16. sata nakon što su počeli da piju. Osim toga, nivo kortizola ( hormon stresa ) je bio povišen za 36% u proseku, tako da je hormon rasta znatno počeo smanjeno da se luči.

Postoje i dobri uticaji umerenog konzumiranja alkohola. Umereno konzumiranje piva (3 do 6 dl/dan) stimuliše imunološki sistem i smanjuje masnoće u krvi. Tri do četiri čaše piva smanjile su nivo C-reaktivnog proteina (veže se uz upale i razne bolesti srca, katalizuje rad mikrozomalnih enzima jetre pa skraćuje poluvreme eliminacije svih lekova koji se metabolišu preko džigerice), što nam govori o protiupalnom delovanju i delimično objašnjava povezanost između umerenog konzumiranja alkohola i smanjenih srčanih problema. Od davnina se priča o prednostima 1 do 2 čaše crnog vina. Hranjive materije u vinu (resveratrol i proantocianidin) takođe su korisne za srce, jer smanjuju oksidativni stres, dok alkohol proširuje krvne sudove.

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Loši uticaji prekomernog konzumiranja alkohola su: Podstiče dehidraciju. Alkoholna pića su diuretici koji nas podstiču na mokrenje. Izlasci i konzumiranje alkohola do kasnih sati smanjuju nivo važnih hormona u krvi. Ti hormoni luče se u dubokom snu i to najviše tokom noći. Npr. posle samo jednog pijanstva potrebno je 24h da se nivo testosterona vrati u normalu. Alkoholna pića su prezasićena šećerima. To moze da ima za posledicu poremećaja nivoa šećera u krvi. Nakon konzumacije alkohola brže dolazi do mišićnog zamora. Nakon pijanstva u našim mišićima ostaje veća količina mlečne kiseline nego obično pa zato našem organizmu treba manje vremena da se umori. Mogući su isto, bolovi u mišićima i jaki grčevi. Otežava resorpciju vitamina i minerala. Kroz mokrenje najčešće izbacujemo upravo korisne vitamine i minerale koji su nam potrebni za normalno funkcioniranje. Povećava rizik od povreda. Tako isto, produžava vreme oporavka. Smanjuje izdržljivost. Organizmu je za proizvodnju energije potreban šećer u krvotoku. Taj šećer se proizvodi pomoću jetre, oslobađajući glukozu u krvotok. Alkohol smanjuje sposobnost organizma da proizvede ovaj šećer (glukozu), zbog čega osoba ima manje energije i manje je izdržljiva. Otežava proizvodnju glikogena. Glikogen se proizvodi u jetri, koja isto razgrađuje alkohol, zato je vrlo lako zaključiti kako konzumacija alkohola opterećuje rad jetre te samim time smanjuje i usporava proizvodnju glikogena neophodnog za intenzivan mišićni rad.

Ovo su neke najbitnije stvari koje trebate znati što se tiče uticaja alkohola na vaš organizam.

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ALCOHOL EFFECT ON BODY AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE

I think there is a lot of misconceptions about what is alcohol affect on human body, weight, and obesity. Is it true or is a misconception that alcohol is fattening, we will try to clarify in the following text.

The general formula for the alcohol is R-OH. Out of all the alcohol in the alcoholic beverages is ethyl alcohol or ethanol. Prepared fermentation of fruits and cereals that contain sugar.

Alcohol

Alcohol as alcohol it self can not be stored in fat, that mean calories from alcohol can not be converted into fat. But alcohol has a significant impact on our metabolism and thus indirectly on spending our calories and speed of metabolism. It decreases the secretion of the hormone testosterone and growth hormone significantly affect the rate of metabolism and the growth of muscle tissue. For example, a study conducted by the TNO Institute for Food and Nutrition, had 10 subjects who drank 30-40 grams of alcohol a day (2-3 beers or wine 10-15 grams). After 3 weeks, their testosterone levels decreased by approximately 7%. University of Helsinki conducted a similar study, they were given to respondents 1.5 g ethanol per kg of body weight in 10 healthy men aged 20-26 years, and found that their testosterone levels decreased by 23% on average between 10th and 16th hours after they started drinking. In addition, the level of cortisol (stress hormone) was increased by 36% on average, so the growth hormone significantly reduced started to light.

There are good effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Moderate consumption of beer (3 to 6 dl / day) stimulates the immune system and reduces the fat in the blood. Three to four cups of beer decreased levels of C-reactive protein (linked to inflammation and with various diseases of the heart), which tells us about anti inflammation action and partly explains the association between moderate alcohol consumption and reduced heart problems. Since ancient times, stories about the benefits of 1 to 2 glasses of red wine. Nutrients in wine are also beneficial for the heart because it reduces stress, whereas alcohol dilates blood vessels.

al

The bad effects of excessive alcohol consumption are: Encourages dehydration. Alcoholic drinks are diuretics that encourage us to urinate. Going out and drinking until the late hours making lower levels of important hormones in the blood. These hormones are secreted in a deep sleep, mostly during the night. After one drunk is necessary 24h to testosterone levels return to normal. Alcoholic drinks are oversaturated in sugars. This can result in a disorder of blood sugar levels. After alcohol consumption leads to faster muscle fatigue. After drunkenness in our muscles remains a greater amount of lactic acid than usual and therefore our body needs less time to be tired. Possible are the same, muscle aches and cramps. Hinders absorption of vitamins and minerals. Through urination usually out just useful vitamins and minerals we need to function normally. Increases the risk of injury. In the same way, extended recovery time. Reduces stamina. Organism for the production of energy required sugar in the bloodstream. The sugar is produced by the liver, into the blood stream releasing glucose. Alcohol lowers the body’s ability to produce this sugar (glucose), which is why people have less energy and are less durable. Hinders the production of glycogen. Glycogen is produced in the liver, which also breaks down alcohol, so it is very easy to conclude that alcohol consumption burden on the liver and thus reduces and slows the production of glycogen necessary for intensive muscle work.

NECK PAIN

Neck pain is a common occurrence these days. Long sitting on the computer, a desk, behind the wheel is the common causes of this problem. In this article we will explain this phenomen and try to help in the elimination of the same.

Pain in the cervical spine may spread to one or both shoulders, shoulder blades or the front of the chest, and neck stiffness were monitored and limited motion of the cervical spine. If the pain from the door wider to one side of the head, there may be visual disturbances, noise or tinnitus, balance disorders, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. Pain can be spread in one or both arms, and fingers can occur numbness in the fingers and arms along, decreased or increased sensitivity of the skin and loss of strength in his hand.

Neck pain can be caused by:

Straining muscles. Overuse of the neck muscles, such as driving too many hours hunched over the wheel, sitting in an irregular situation often causes pain in the neck area. Even minor things like reading in bed or sleeping in the sitting position can overburden your neck muscles. Damaged joints. Just like all the other joints in your body, and neck joints tend to be subjected to abrasion in accordance with age, which can lead to osteoarthritis in the neck. Nerve compression. A herniated disc or bone marrow in the cervical vertebrae can cause pressure on the nerves of the spinal cord injury. Injuries. Auto collisions and accidents often result whiplash and neck injuries, which occur when the head is going backwards flick moves rapidly forward, it is stretching the soft tissues of the neck beyond their borders. Diseases. Neck pain can sometimes be caused by a disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis, meningitis or cancer.

neck-muscles-back-view

Prevention and Exercise:

In the chronic phase, when reducing the intensity of pain and the spine becomes more mobile, applied for easing pain and spasms physical therapy, massage, electrotherapy and stretching. Physical therapy includes warm compresses, therapeutic ultrasound that serve as an introduction to kinesitherapy (movement therapy, medical gymnastics). Stretching, isometric exercises to strengthen the muscles, relieving exercises and posture exercises. It is important to emphasize the importance of medical gymnastics in the restoration and / or maintenance of the function of the cervical spine.

The exercises used in strengthening the neck muscles are generally static or mild and slow dynamic exercise. They should be run 3 times a week for 20 minutes.

 

Neck-Rotation-Stretch-exercise-for-women

 

Lightweight door rotation in all directions with a slight stretch. Around 12 rotation each side or 12 move up and down, left or right, slowly.
neck-exercises-at-office-desk
Pressure with hand in the opposite side of the carriage and the strengthening of the neck muscles with static contractions. Try to hold in position for couple of second and then change the side.

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Strengthening Trapezius dorsal and cervical muscles, which is very important for proper posture and maintain the head in the proper position in the effort. The exercise is performed from a starting position with hands outstretched and pulling this towards the chin with a mandatory deflections elbows above shoulder level. Make sure that rod with a weight not too heavy. From 10 to 15 repetitions 3 to 4 sets.

BOL U VRATU

Bol u vratu je česta pojava u današnje vreme. Dugo sedenje za kompjuterom, radnim stolom, za volanom su česti uzroci ovog problema. U ovom tekstu ćemo objasniti ovu pojavu i pokušati da vam pomognemo u otklanjanju iste.

neck-pain

Bolovi u predelu vratne kičme mogu se širiti prema jednom ili oba ramena, lopaticama ili prednjoj strani grudnog koša, a praćeni su ukočenošću vrata i ograničenim pokretima vratne kičme. Ako se bolovi iz vrata šire u jednu stranu glave, mogu se javiti poremećaji vida, šum ili zujanje u ušima, smetnje ravnoteže, vrtoglavica, mučnina i povraćanje. Bolovi se mogu širiti i u jednu ili obe ruke, sve do prstiju, može se javiti trnjenje u prstima i duž ruke, smanjena ili povećana osetljivost kože i gubitak snage u ruci.

Bol u vratu može biti uzrokovan:

Naprezanje mišića. Prekomerna upotreba vratnih mišića, kao što je previše sati vožnje pogrbljeni nad volanom, sedenje u nepravilnom položaju često izaziva bol u vratnom delu. Čak i manje stvari kao što su čitanje u krevetu ili spavanje u sedećem položaju mogu da preopterete mišiće vrata.

Oštećenje zglobova. Baš kao i svi ostali zglobovi u vašem telu, i zglobovi vrata imaju tendenciju da se podvrgnu habanju u skladu sa godinama, što može dovesti do pojave osteoartritisa u predelu vrata.

Nerve kompresije. Hernija diskova ili koštane srzi kod vratnih pršljenova može da izazove pritisak na živce iz kičmene moždine.

Povrede. Auto sudari i nesreće često rezultiraju i trzajne povrede vrata, koji se javljaju kada se glava koja ide unazad pomera trzajem naglo napred, to je istezanje mekih tkiva vrata izvan njihovih granica.

Bolesti. Bol u vratu ponekad može biti uzrokovan bolestima, kao što su reumatoidni artritis, meningitis ili kancer.

neck-muscles-back-view

Prevencija i vežbe:

U hroničnoj fazi, kad se smanji intenzitet bolova, a kičma postane pokretljivija, primjenjuje se za popuštanje bolova i spazma fizikalna terapija, masaža, elektroterapija i istezanje. Fizikalna terapija podrazumeva tople obloge, terapijski ultrazvuk koje služe kao uvod u kineziterapiju (terapija pokretom, medicinska gimnastika). Vežbe istezanja, izometričke vežbe za jačanje mišića, rasteretne vežbe i vežbe držanja. Bitno je istaknuti važnost medicinske gimnastike u ponovnom vraćanju i/ili održavanju funkcije vratne kičme.

Vežbe koje se koriste pri jačanju vratnih mišića su uglavnom statičke ili blage i usporene dinamičke vezbe. Dovoljno ih je izvoditi 3 puta nedeljno po 20ak minuta.

Neck-Rotation-Stretch-exercise-for-women    neck-exercises-at-office-desk

Lagana rotacija vrata u svim pravcima kao na prvoj slici uz lagano istezanje, i na drugoj slici pritisak rukom u suprotnu stranu od pomeranja glave i jacanje vratnih mišića statičkim kontrakcijama.

exercises2904

Jačanje Trapezius leđnog i vratnog mišića koji je jako bitan za pravilno držanje tela i održavanje glave u pravilnom položaju pri naporima. Vežba se izvodi iz početnog položaja sa ispruženim rukama i povlačenjem tega ka bradi uz obavezno odizanje laktova iznad nivoa ramena. Paziti da šipka sa tegom ne bude preteška. Od 10 do 15 ponavljanja u 3 do 4 serije.

PRE AND POST WORKOUT SNACK

In addition to the frequent and high-quality training is very important to properly feed, also before and after training. From this depends on whether the training will be better and more effective later. The ratio of the importance of training and nutrition today might be in the ratio 50 : 50, though some believe that is 30 : 70 in favor of nutrition. It tells you how important nutrition is to achieve appropriate results, recovered your body of training and effort and also rest for the next. Today, professionals and top coaches professional athletes devote more attention to recovery than the training. Here are some groceries and nutrients that are essential before and after your workout.

Assorted-nuts-in-wooden-bowl

Pre Workout Snack. Take the meal 1 to 2 hours before training ( those with a fast metabolism 1 hour before training, those with slower 2 hours before training ). 30 minutes before your workout, take appropriate supplements.

  • Dried fruits
  • Fresh fruits
  • Oatmeal
  • Sweet potato
  • Quinoa – 12% of protein, 55% of complex carbohydrates 
  • Rice Cakes with Nut Butter
  • Banana with Almond Butter
  • Smoothie
  • Whole grain cereal with a cup of almond milk
  • Granola of fruit and nut bar such as KIND or Larabar

These food boxes that are listed mainly contain complex carbohydrates and beneficial fats, that you need a source of energy during training. It is necessary to eat before your workout, 40-50 grams of carbs and 30-40 grams of protein is quite enough. Too much food will also slow down digestion and burden the stomach. It is best if there is no food in your stomach when you start the training.

Post Workout Snacks. Should be taken in the next 60 minutes after training.

  • Chocolate Milk
  • Boiled Eggs – one egg have 7g of proteins 
  • Protein Shakes
  • Protein Bars
  • Cottage Cheese with Berries
  • Greek Yogurt with Berries
  • Peanut Butter on Wheat Toast 
  • Hummus with Baby Carrots
  • Cheese and Whole Grain Crackers Nuts

Food boxes that are on the list after training contain complex carbohydrates ( Glycogen, which is the most important as muscle fuel ) that are used for recovery and energy recovery, as well as proteins that are food for muscle fibers, they recover and rebuild muscle tissue during weight training breaks down. Of course, taking sufficient amounts of protein after training can significantly increase muscle mass and muscle tone.

 

ISHRANA PRE I POSLE TRENINGA

Pored čestog, pravovremenog i kvalitetnog treninga jako je bitno pravilno se hraniti, kako pre tako i posle treninga. Od ovoga zavisi da li će trening biti kvalitetniji i kasnije delotvorniji. Odnos važnosti treninga i ishrane danas je možda u razmeri 60 : 50, mada neki smatraju da je i 20 : 80 u korist ishrane (500 kcal na treningu je teško potrošiti a lako uneti). To vam govori koliko je ishrana bitna kako bi postigli odgovarajuće rezultate, oporavili organizam od treninga i napora i bili odmorni i spremni za sledeći. Danas stručnjaci i vrhunski treneri profesionalnih sportista više posvećuju pažnje oporavku nego samom treningu. U ovom tekstu navešćemo neke namernice i nutritijente koji su bitni pre i posle vašeg treninga.

Assorted-nuts-in-wooden-bowl

Namirnice i nutritijenti pre treninga. Uzmite obrok 1 do 2 sata pre treninga (oni sa brzim metabolizmom 1 sat pre treninga, oni sa sporijim 2 sata pre treninga). 30 minuta pre treninga uzmite odgovarajuće dodatke ishrani.

  • Sušeno voće
  • Sveže voće
  • Ovsene pahuljice
  • Slatki krompir
  • Kinoa- 12% proteina, 55% slozenih ugljenih hidrata
  • Kolač od pirinča sa kikiriki puterom
  • Banana i puter od badema
  • Razne vrste smoothie šejkova ( mixevi napravljeni u blenderu npr. malina, banana, jogurt ,musli, bademi… )
  • Zrna celih žitarica uz šolju bademovog mleka
  • Voće i čokoladica sa bademom ili kikirikijem

Ove namernice koje su  navedene, sadrže složene ugljene hidrate, korisne masti i belančevine, koje su vam potrebne kao izvor energije tokom treninga. Potrebno je jesti pre treninga, 40-50 grama ugljenih hidrata i 30-40 grama belančevina je sasvim dovoljno. Previše jela će isto tako usporiti probavu i opteretiti želudac. Najbolje je ako u želucu nema hrane kada započinjemo sa treningom.

Namirnice i nutritijenti posle treninga ( do 60 min posle treninga ):

  • Čokoladno mleko
  • Kuvana jaja – jedno belance sadrži 7g proteina
  • Proteinski šejkovi –jedna merica od 30g uz mleko ili vodu
  • Proteinske čokoladice
  • Mrvljeni sir sa bobičastim voćem
  • Grčki jogurt sa bobičastim voćem
  • Puter od kikirikija sa tost hlebom od celih zrna žitarica
  • Humus ( kuvana I mlevena leblebija ) sa mini šargarepom
  • Sir sa krekerom od celog zrnevlja
  • Orasi, pistaći, kikiriki

Namernice koje se nalaze na spisku posle treninga sadrže složene ugljene hidrate ( glikogen koji je najbitniji kao mišićno gorivo ) koji služe za oporavak organizma I obnavljanje energije, kao I proteini koji su hrana za mišićna vlakna, oni oporavljaju i obnavljaju mišićno tkivo koje se tokom treninga sa tegovima razgrađuje. Naravno uz uzimanje dovoljne količine proteina posle treninga možemo znatno povećati mišićnu masu I tonus mišića.

Bitna stvar je da svoj organizam uvedete u režim ishrane koji mu najviše odgovara. Smanjenim unosom prostih šećera i totalnom eliminacijom istih, nećete imati potrebu i želju za prejedanjem i unošenjem džank hrane, kako se popularno kaže. Jako bitna stvar proverite na etiketi na proizvodu nutricionitičke vrednosti proizvoda. Što manje prostih šećera i loših masti Masti – dobre i loše a što više slioženih hidrata, dobrih masti, proteina, vlakana i vitamina.  

 

BASAL METABOLISM

Why is it important to know what is the basal metabolism, what his value is for men and women, how you can calculate, and other useful information you will find below.

Basal metabolism calculates the minimum amount of energy needed to maintain basic life functions. This is what your organs expended in standby mode, or the energy that you need to sustain life. The liver is the largest consumer of energy in the rest (about 27%), and brain (19%), muscle (18%), heart (7%), lung (9%) and kidneys (10%). Expressed in calories, the average rate basal metabolic rate for adult men is about 1500 to 2000 kcal / day, and for women from 1200 to 1600 kcal / day. The reason for the difference lies in the smaller internal organs of women and less of muscle tissue (less total cell mass).

Your MBR you can calculate by the simplest formula: body weight (kg) x 20 kcal, for example. 80 kg x 20 kcal = 1600 kcal

Dominant factors affecting basal metabolism of the body size, age and gender. Besides the food intake affects the basal metabolic rate – starvation reduces basal metabolism by acting as a defense mechanism that the body defends and saves energy.

metabolism-and-calories

Physical activity also changes the value of the basal metabolic rate – after completion of the physical activity we can see an increase in metabolic rate. It was observed that after long activities (80 to 180 minutes) of moderate intensity comes to long-term increase in metabolism at rest that lasts 24 to 48 hours after training. It is well known that the metabolism at rest increased by 200 kcal / day in people who are regularly physically active compared to sedentary individuals.

If you know how much is your basal metabolism and you know that an average workout in the gym spend from 200 to 500 calories (depending on the duration and intensity of training), then you know to your daily calorie intake customize your order. If you intend to lose weight, calorie intake must be less than your total daily consumption (basal metabolism plus activity). Ideally, this deficit is about 500 kcal. Conversely, if you want to weight, eat 500 calories more than what your daily spending.

BAZALNI METABOLIZAM

Zašto je važno znati šta je bazalni metabolizam, kolika mu je vrednost kod muškaraca i žena, od čega zavisi, kako se izračunava, i još drugih korisnih informacija ćete saznati u narednom tekstu.

Bazalni metabolizam izračunava minimalnu količinu energije koja je potrebna za održavanje osnovnih životnih funkcija organizma. To je ono što vaši organi potroše u stanju mirovanja, odnosno energija koja vam je potrebna za održanje života. Jetra je najveći potrošač energije u mirovanju (oko 27%), zatim mozak (19%), mišići (18%), srce (7%), pluća (9%) i bubrezi (10%). Izraženo u kalorijama, prosečna stopa bazalnog metabolizma za odraslog muškarca iznosi oko 1500 do 2000 kcal/dan, a kod žena 1200 do 1600 kcal/dan. Razlog za postojanje razlike leži u manjim unutrašnjim organima žena i manjem sadržaju mišićnog tkiva (manja ukupna ćelijska masa).

metabolism-and-calories

On se izračunava najjednostavnijom formulom: telesna tezina (kg) x 20 kcal , npr. 80kg x 20 kcal = 1600 kcal

Dominantni faktori koji utiču na vrednost bazalnog metabolizma su veličina organizma, starost i pol. Osim toga i unos hrane utiče na stopu bazalnog metabolizma – gladovanje smanjuje bazalni metabolizam delujući kao odbrambeni mehanizam kojim se organizam brani i štedi energiju.

Fizička aktivnost takođe menja vrednosti bazalnog metabolizma – nakon završetka fizičke aktivnosti uočava se porast nivoa metabolizma. Primećeno je da nakon dužih aktivnosti (80 do 180 minuta) umerenog intenziteta dolazi do dugoročnog povećanja metabolizma u mirovanju koje traje 24 do 48 h nakon treninga. Dobro je poznato da je metabolizam u mirovanju uvećan za oko 200 kcal/dan kod osoba koje su redovno fizički aktivne u odnosu na one koje nisu.

Ako znate koliko iznosi vaš bazalni metabolizam i znate da jednim prosečnim treningom u teretani potrošite od 200 do 500 kcal ( u zavisnosti od vremena trajanja treninga i intenziteta ), onda ćete umeti da svoj dnevni kalorijski unos prilagodite svom cilju. Ako vam je namera da smršate, kalorijski unos mora biti manji od vaše ukupne dnevne potrošnje (bazalni metabolizam plus aktivnost). Idealno je da taj deficit bude oko 500 kcal. Suprotno tome, ako želite masu, unosite 500 kcal više od onoga što je vaša dnevna potrošnja. 

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